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Next-generation sequencing has identified somatic mutations that are prognostic of cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
We evaluated the incidence and prognostic significance of somatic mutations in 89 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients who received an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Next-generation sequencing was performed on paraffin embedded bone marrow, which was obtained at a median of 31 days before initiating the preparative regimen.
RESULTS:
The 3 most common subtypes of MDS were refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-1 (35%), RAEB-2 (29%), and refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (18%). Most patients (91%) received a myeloablative regimen of fludarabine with intravenous busulfan. Somatic mutations (> 0) were identified in 39 (44%) of analyzed samples. The 6 most commonly identified gene mutations were ASXL1 (8%), DNMT3A (8%), RUNX1 (7%), KRAS (6%), IDH2 (4%), and TP53 (4%). The low incidence of mutations in our study sample might be explained by tissue source and stringent variant-calling methodology. Moreover, we speculate that the low incidence of mutations might, perhaps, also be explained by previous azacitidine treatment in 82% of cases. Multivariate analysis identified TP53 (hazard ratio [HR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-13.09; P = .03) and IDH2 mutations (HR, 4.74; 95% CI, 1.33-16.91; P = .02) as predictors of inferior 3-year overall survival.
CONCLUSION:
This study furthers implementation of clinical genomics in MDS and identifies TP53 and IDH2 as targets for pre- or post-transplant therapy.

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